Design and development of a sweat-based glucose monitoring graphene nanodevice (closed-loop) with controlled transdermal nanoemulsion release for hypoglycemic drug delivery



The present project aims to design and develop an innovative wearable device for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus which will make use of novice graphene structures.

The implementation of this task will rely on three individual actions and more specifically:

bio-sensor Development

A. The development of a very sensitive glucose bio-sensor based on graphene. Graphene layers will Be deposited layer-by-layer on a substrate (patch) with a cutting-edge technology Langmuir Blogget based on which chemical compounds which can sense/trace glucose will be immobilized to each graphene layer. This substrate will be a sticker patch which will constantly counts the glucose levels from sweat and consequently will be a non-invasive diagnostic method

hypoglycemic treatment System

B. The development of a release system for hypoglycemic treatment. Specific SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 analogues, that are commonly used for the treatment of T2DM, will be encapsulated into a nanoemulsion. The nanoemulsion that poses lipophilic properties will be then incorporated into a gelatine patch.


C. Development of a device/software which, through a Bluetooth technology, will receive electrical sign from the bio-sensor, will analyze changes on the glucose levels from sweat and triggers the release of the nanoemulsion from the patch via thermal heating.

Smart Expertise Product

The final product (Actions A, B and C) will be a product of a smart expertise in the area of biomedicine and pharmacy which deploy the tremendous development of biotechnology, computer science and material engineering the last decade. The implementation of this project is expected to contribute not only scientifically and economically to the participating departments as well as the company and the country, but mainly will contribute to the management of diabetes mellitus and the improvement of the quality of life of the diabetic patients.

The suggested effort of research is fully in line with the Research and Innovation Strategy for Smart Specialization (RIS3) which aims to the development of new products for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

The project proposes the design and development of an innovative diagnostic and therapeutic device that will make use of novel graphene structures. The implementation of the project will be based on three sub-actions and specifically:

  • The development of a sensitive bio-glucose sensor in sweat based on graphene. Graphene sheets with state-of-the-art Langmuir Blogget technology will be deposited to immobilize compounds that have the ability to bind glucose. The biosensor will be an adhesive patch that will continuously measure sweat glucose levels and will therefore be a non-invasive diagnostic method.


  • The development of a system of prolonged release of hypoglycemic therapy. SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 analogues, active compounds used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, will be trapped in nanoemulsions. The nanoemulsions will have lipophilic properties and will be placed in gelatin patches which will adhere to the surface of the skin like the bio-sensor.
  • The development of a device / software which, through Bluetooth technology, will receive electrical signals from the bio-sensor, will analyze the change of glucose levels in sweat and will signal the release of the nanoemulsion of the patch by heating. The final product (Actions A, B and C) will be an object of smart specialization in the field of biomedicine and pharmacy which utilizes the strong development that has shown in the last decade materials science, biotechnology and information technology.

The implementation of the program is expected to offer not only scientific and financial benefits to the participating institutions and the company as well as in our country, but mainly in the management of diabetes and in improving the quality of life of a large number of people as it aims to develop a closed control system (closed-loop) and finally the fully automated control of diabetes mellitus with continuous measurements of glucose levels and administration of hypoglycemic substance.

The proposed research activity is fully aligned with the revised priorities of the National Intelligent Strategy Strategy (RIS3) which aims to develop diagnostic and therapeutic devices for controlled drug delivery for more effective and targeted individualized treatment.


University Of Ioannina
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University of Western Macedonia
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Pharm Data SA

The current project is a joint collaboration of the Laboratory of Physiology (Faculty of Medicine), the Laboratory of Biotechnology (Department of Biological Applications and Technologies), the Ceramics and Composites laboratory (Department of Materials Science and Engineering) of the University of Ioannina, the Renal Unit of the University Hospital of Ioannina, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Western Macedonia and the private R&D and Business Development Organization Pharma-Data S.A.


Demigod Research Project


Recent Publications

[1] Bamgboje, David et al. “Continuous Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring via Contact Lenses: Current Approaches and Future Perspectives.” Biosensors vol. 11,6 189. 9 Jun. 2021, doi:10.3390/bios11060189

[2] V. Fiska, S. Evangelou, N. Giannakeas, M. G. Tsipouras, “DEMIGOD: System Architecture of a Sweat-Based Glucose Monitoring Closed-Loop System with Controlled Transdermal Nanoemulsion Release for Hypoglycemic Treatment”, 9th Panhellenic Conference on Biomedical Technologies, 9-11 September 2021, Thessaloniki, Greece (Virtual Conference)

3) Andreas P. Katsenos, Athena S. Davri, Yannis V. Simos, Ilias P. Nikas, Chryssa Bekiari, Stavroula A. Paschou, Dimitrios Peschos, Spyridon Konitsiotis, Patra Vezyraki & Konstantinos I. Tsamis (2022) New treatment approaches for Alzheimer’s disease: preclinical studies and clinical trials centered on antidiabetic drugs, Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 31:1, 105-123, DOI: 10.1080/13543784.2022.2022122



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